Creation and adaptation of hydrodynamic models
In addition to geological data, hydrodynamic models use the results of laboratory experiments describing the physical properties of rocks and fluids (PVT, phase permeabilities, geomechanical properties of rocks) to create a static basis for the hydrodynamic model.
PetroTrace specialists have extensive experience in analyzing laboratory data and building numerical models of reservoir fluids. We have created hydrodynamic models of oil, gas, oil-gas and gas-condensate fields, fields in carbonate and terrigenous reservoirs (including low-permeability ones), fields in conditions of abnormally high reservoir pressures and high temperatures, fields complicated by faults, natural fracturing, with active water-pressure regime and inclined oil-water contact. We know how to use the capabilities and functionality of modern hydrodynamic modeling tools to describe any object as accurately as possible.
In most cases, oil and gas fields have a history of development. This may be decades of production from thousands of production and injection wells, short periods of test production or hydrodynamic testing of individual exploration wells. In any case, the hydrodynamic model should also include data about well performance in the past periods. For this purpose, models are adapted (adjusted) according to historical data.
Before the models are directly adapted, the development of the field under study and/or its analogues is analyzed. Development analysis helps identify the key features of the field, see the causes of productivity decline and well watering, assess reservoir pressure dynamics, involvement and depletion of reserves. Development analysis also helps control the quality of input data, which the hydrodynamic model will be adjusted to.
PetroTrace specialists combine traditional ("manual") approaches to adaptation with modern automated technologies (proxy models, ensemble smoothing, optimization methods). At the same time we are focused on preserving the physical and geological realism of the model, which allows us to ensure the reliability of the forecast even in conditions of low quality "historical" data.
Monitoring and operational optimization of field development based on continuously operating models
As the field is developed, both reservoir pressure and fluid distribution in the reservoir change. The hydrodynamic model adapted by the development history can be regularly updated, supplemented by data on well operation modes for the past period. If the static basis is also updated taking into account new drilling data, the model becomes permanently active and allows having information about the current state of field development.
On the basis of permanent models it is possible to perform operational development management - optimal well regimes selection, detailed forecast of production losses due to wells shutdown for workover and/or tests, identification of ineffective injection and forecast of injection agent flow redistribution effect.
Giving an idea of the current spatial distribution of mobile residual reserves and dynamics of their drainage for the next few years, permanent models help to identify undrained or poorly drained reserves, develop and estimate geological and technological measures for their effective extraction. PetroTrace specialists have extensive experience in planning, optimizing and implementing such measures as drilling lateral horizontal boreholes, additional perforation and/or interval isolation, surfactant and polymer injection, well transfers, conversion of wells for injection and reorganization of the maintenance reservoir pressure system.
Design and reengineering of fields
Any decisions on oil and gas field appraisal and development are based on forecasts of technological indicators calculated on the basis of hydrodynamic models. State-of-the-art hydrodynamic models can estimate production and fluid injection dynamics for decades to come for various fields or groups of field development scenarios. With their experience in designing and analyzing a wide variety of facilities, PetroTrace specialists can find the best development option for virtually any asset.
We have worked with oil, gas, gas condensate and oil fields onshore and on the continental shelf. PetroTrace employees have experience in new field projects and experience in reengineering the development of producing fields using all the technologies available in the industry. We also actively use hydrodynamic modeling to assess production prospects of potential assets at the exploration stage.
In all cases, we pay special attention to the analysis of "geological" uncertainty and minimization of risks associated with it. This allows us to find not only the best (the most cost-effective), but also options of field development that are resistant to uncertainties.
In many cases (gas and gas-condensate fields, oil fields with a large share of flowing wells) the capabilities of hydrodynamic models are not enough for correct prediction of development indicators, since there is a need for detailed accounting of surface infrastructure and downhole pumping equipment. Integrated models allow combining hydraulic models of liquids and gas flow in wells and pipelines with one or several hydrodynamic models within the framework of single synchronous calculation.
Integrated models are used at the stage of design and optimization of field development. In this case, they allow obtaining more realistic forecasts of development indicators and evaluating the integrated effect of investments in the underground and surface part of the asset. An integrated model can also be used for operational management of an oil and gas asset - assignment of well modes, optimization of downhole pumping equipment selection, short- and long-term production forecasting and integrated assessment of the effects of geological and technical measures.
PetroTrace specialists have experience in creating and using integrated reservoir - well - surface models both for gas and gas-condensate fields and for oil fields with a high proportion of mechanized wells. Our integrated models have been used both for solving design problems and for operational management of the development of individual fields and groups of fields.